Sea Surface Temperature Near Real Time GeoPolar Blended
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The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) office of
National Environmental Satellite Data and Services (NESDIS) now generates a
daily 0.05° (~5km) global high resolution satellite-based sea surface
temperature (SST) analyses on an operational basis. The new analysis combines
SST data from U.S, Japanese and European geostationary infrared imagers, and
low-earth orbiting infrared (U.S. and European) SST data, into a single
high-resolution 5-km product - this grid spacing was chosen to allow the
resolution to approach the Nyquist sampling criterion for the mid-latitude
Rossby radius (~20 km), in order to preserve mesoscale oceanographic features
such as eddies and frontal meanders. The input SST data themselves are also
processed in-house via the Geo-SST Bayesian and physical retrieval approach
(GOES-E/W, Meteosat-10), and, for polar-orbiting and Himawari-8, the Advanced
Clear Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO).
The analysis employs a rigorous multi-scale optimal interpolation (OI)
methodology that approximates the Kalman filter, together with a data-adaptive
correlation length scale, to ensure a good balance between detail preservation
and noise reduction. The multi-scale OI employs a quad-tree approach avoids
the concomitant computation times that result from pursuing a straight OI
methodology, while running the analysis at three different correlation scales
(coarse, medium, fine) preserves mathematical rigor. The algorithm is fully
described in Khellah et al. (2005).
The product accuracy verified against globally distributed buoys is ~0.02 K,
with a robust standard deviation of ~0.25 K. The new analysis has proven a
significant success even when compared to other products that purport to have
a similar resolution. This analysis forms the basis for other operational
environmental products such as coral reef bleaching risk and ocean heat
content for tropical cyclone prediction.
Forthcoming enhancements include the incorporation of microwave SST products
from low-earth orbiting platforms (e.g. GCOM-W1) in order to improve
resolution of SST features in areas of persistent cloud and correct for
diurnal effects via a turbulence model of upper ocean heating.
The analysis has been run for the period 09/2002 – 08/2015, incorporating
reprocessed geostationary and polar-orbiting SSTs. This has been done
primarily to furnish a consistent reference baseline for anomaly-based
products such as those generated by Coral Reef Watch.
Geo-Polar Blended (Imager + AVHRR + VIIRS)
Near real-time + 3 days
Geographic / WGS84
Creator: NOAA OSPO
Release Place: Suitland, MD, USA
[Please acknowledge "NOAA CoastWatch/OceanWatch" when you use data from our
site and cite the particular dataset DOI as appropriate.]
Donlon, C.J., Martin, M., Stark, J., Roberts-Jones, J., Fiedler, E., and
Wimmer, W., The Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis
(OSTIA) system, Remote Sens. Environ.,116, 140-158,
Harris, A., and Maturi, E., Assimilation of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature
Retrievals. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84, 1575-1580, 2003.
Ignatov, Alexander, Xinjia Zhou, Boris Petrenko, Xingming Liang, Yury Kihai,
Prasanjit Dash, John Stroup, John Sapper, and Paul DiGiacomo. "AVHRR GAC SST
Reanalysis Version 1 (RAN1)." Remote Sensing 8, no. 4 (April 9, 2016):
Khellah, F., P.W. Fieguth, M.J. Murray and M.R. Allen, Statistical Processing
of Large Image Sequences, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens., 14,
Liu, Gang, Alan E. Strong, and William Skirving. "Remote Sensing of Sea
Surface Temperatures during 2002 Barrier Reef Coral Bleaching."
Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 84, no. 15 (April 15,
Liu, Gang, Scott F. Heron, C. Mark Eakin, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Maria
Vega-Rodriguez, Liane S. Guild, Jacqueline L. De La Cour, et al. "Reef-Scale
Thermal Stress Monitoring of Coral Ecosystems: New 5-Km Global Products from
NOAA Coral Reef Watch." Remote Sensing 6, no. 11 (November 20, 2014):
Maturi, Eileen, Andy Harris, Jon Mittaz, John Sapper, Gary Wick, Xiaofang Zhu,
Prasanjit Dash, and Prabhat Koner. "A New High Resolution Sea Surface
Temperature Blended Analysis."
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society IN PRESS
Reynolds, R.W., and Chelton, D.B., Comparisons of daily sea surface
temperature analyses for 2007-08, J. Climate, 23, 3545-3562,
Thiébaux, J., Rogers, E., Wang, W., and Katz, B., A New High-Resolution
Blended Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature Analysis.
Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84, 645-656, 2003.
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