Satellite SST is the longest and most mature application of ocean remote sensing. Passive observations are made with infrared (IR) sensors onboard multiple polar-orbiting and geostationary platforms, and microwave sensors onboard polar platforms. The IR sensors have higher spatial (1-4km) and temporal (10-15min, onboard geostationary satellites) resolution, and superior radiometric performance. However, IR sensors cannot "see through cloud", thus typically limiting retrievals to ~20% of the global ocean, whereas microwave sensors may see through clouds (except heavily precipitating) and therefore have higher coverage, but have coarser spatial resolution (~20-50km) and radiometric performance, cannot be used in coastal and marginal ice zone areas, and may be subject to other errors (due to e.g. radio frequency interference, RFI)

NOAA produces several L2 (Level 2) (original swath), L3 (gridded), and L4 (gap-free analysis) SST products in international Group for High-Resolution SST (GHRSST) Data Specifications version 2 (GDS2) and makes them available from NOAA CoastWatch:

ACSPO Global SST from AVHRR GAC

  • NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Ocean (ACSPO) v2.40 enterprise system from NOAA-18 and -19, and Metop-A and -B
  • Near-real time (NRT) 2-week rotated buffer (produced by OSPO , with ~4hrs latency)
  • Delayed-mode (4-days latency) science quality Reanalysis (RAN; produced at STAR). RAN1 from 30 Aug 2002 to present.

ACSPO Global SST from MODIS

The MODIS SST data are produced from Terra and Aqua satellites using the NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Ocean (ACSPO) v2.50 enterprise system (Ignatov et al., 2016). Only near-real time (NRT) data are produced at STAR, with a ~3days latency. The data are not archived and only available at this Coast watch page as a 2week rotated buffer. MODIS data can reprocessed in STAR, for the full Terra and Aqua missions, if there is users' interest.

ACSPO Global SST from ABI

20181013020037_FD_120.png The ABI SST data are produced from GOES-16 satellite using the NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Ocean (ACSPO) v2.50 enterprise system. Currently, only near-real time (NRT) data are produced at STAR, with a ~2days latency. The data are available in NetCDF4 format, compliant with the GHRSST Data Specifications v2 (GDS2). Currently, the data are not archived and only available at this Coast Watch page as a 2week rotated buffer. There is a plan to reprocess the ABI data, for the full GOES-16 mission.

 

ACSPO Global SST from AHI

The AHI SST data are produced from Himawari-8 geostationary satellite using the NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Ocean (ACSPO) v2.50 enterprise system. Currently, only near-real time (NRT) data are produced at STAR, with a ~2days latency. The data are available in NetCDF4 format, compliant with the GHRSST Data Specifications v2 (GDS2). Currently, the data are not archived and only available at this Coast Watch page as a 2week rotated buffer. There is a plan to reprocess the AHI data, for the full Himawari-8 mission.

GOES Imager (GOES-15 and earlier) Level 3

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Satellite Data Processing and Distribution are generating operational sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites GOES-East and West. The generation of SSTs began with GOES-8 in 2000 and has continued to be generated through GOES-15. The current operational satellites are GOES-13 and GOES-15.

NOAA Geo-Polar Blended Global Level 4

sst_geo-polar-blended_5km_2018288_120.png The NOAA geo-polar blended SST is a daily 0.05° (~5km) global high resolution satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) Level-4 analyses generated on an operational basis. This analysis combines SST data from US, Japanese and European geostationary infrared imagers, and low-earth orbiting infrared (U.S. and European) SST data, into a single high-resolution 5-km product.

 

Seviri (MSG) geostationary, Level 3

2018_286_32U_120.png SSTs from Meteosat-11 data (centered at 0¡ longitude), taking a sub-selection of channels from the SEVIRI instrument that corresponds with those of the GOES-Imager. The main differences for the end-user are that the Meteosat SST products are "full-disk", every 15 minutes, and have a resolution at the nadir point of ~3-km, at least for the GHRSST L2P data.