Seviri (MSG) - Geostationary - Level 3

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Satellite Data Processing and Distribution are generating operational sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites GOES-East and West. The generation of SSTs began with GOES-8 in 2000 and has continued to be generated through GOES-15

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    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Satellite Data Processing and Distribution are generating operational sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites GOES-East and West. The generation of SSTs began with GOES-8 in 2000 and has continued to be generated through GOES-15. They are situated at longitude 135oW and 75oW, respectively, thus allowing the acquisition of high-temporal-resolution SST retrievals. The algorithm calculates SST by utilizing a fully physical retrieval scheme based on modified total least squares (MTLS, Koner et al., 2015) and a probabilistic (Bayesian) approach for cloud masking (Merchant et al., 2005). A more detailed description can be described in the Algorithms and Bayesian Cloud Mask section below.

    The GOES-13 and 15 imagers observe both northern and southern hemisphere sectors every half an hour. These 5-band (0.6, 3.9, 6.7, 10.7, 13.3 ¬Ķm) images are processed to retrieve¬†SST¬†retrievals at 4-km resolution. The 3.9, 10.7 & 13.3 ¬Ķm channels are used to determine the¬†SST, while the 0.6, 3.9 and 10.7 ¬Ķm channels are used to detect cloud contamination. Individual sectors are output as¬†GHRSST¬†Level-2 P¬†SST¬†product files, and retrievals are also remapped, averaged and composited hourly into single-byte per pixel "flat" binary files and posted to a server for user access. The retrievals are available approximately 90 minutes after the nominal epoch of the¬†SST¬†determinations. 3-hour and 24-hour composite files are also made available. CoastWatch Regional Imagery is generated every three hours by combining the 1-hourly¬†SST¬†images for these areas.

    The same algorithm approach is used to generate SSTs from Meteosat-11 data (centered at 0¡ longitude), taking a sub-selection of channels from the SEVIRI instrument that corresponds with those of the GOES-Imager. The main differences for the end-user are that the Meteosat SST products are "full-disk", every 15 minutes, and have a resolution at the nadir point of ~3-km, at least for the GHRSST L2P data.

    Algorithms

    Prior to the implementation of the fully physical retrieval algorithm with GOES-13 and 15, the algorithm retrieval schemes were still based on Radiative Transfer Modeling (RTM), generating skin temperatures rather than bulk temperatures. The form of the prior GOES operational SST equation was:

     

    Short Names
    GOES_L3
    Temporal Coverage

    Near real-time + 3 days

    Product Families
    Sea Surface Temperature
    Measurements
    Sea Surface Temperature - Geostationary
    Processing Levels
    Level 3
    Latency Groups
    0 Hours <= 24 Hours (NRT)
    Latency Details

    Less than 24 hours

    Spatial Resolution Groups
    2km+
    Spatial Resolution Details

    6 km

    Data Providers
    NOAA
    NESDIS
    OSPO
    Spatial Coverage

    CoastWatch US Regions

    Description

    Also known as the CoastWatch Regional Nodes: OceanWatch Central Pacific, PolarWatch, Great Lakes, East Coast, Atlantic OceanWatch - Caribbean - Gulf of Mexico, WaterWatch (inland rivers), West Coast

    Meteosat

    Description

    Meteosat
     

    Platform Type
    Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite (GEO)
    Instruments
    Organizations
    EUMETSAT
    ESA
    Orbital Longitude
    0¬į
    Orbital Altitude
    35786 km

    SEVIRI

    Description

    Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager

    Platforms
    Instrument Types
    Imager
    Organizations
    EUMETSAT
    • Koner, P. K., A. Harris, and E. Maturi. "A Physical Deterministic Inverse Method for Operational Satellite Remote Sensing: An Application for Sea Surface Temperature Retrievals."¬†IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing¬†53, no. 11 (November¬†2015): 5872-88.¬†doi:10.1109/TGRS.2015.2424219.
    • Kurihara, Yukio, Hiroshi Murakami, and Misako Kachi. "Sea Surface Temperature from the New Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Himawari-8 Satellite."¬†Geophysical Research Letters¬†43, no. 3 (February 16, 2016): 2015GL067159.¬†doi:10.1002/2015GL067159.
    • Maturi, Eileen, Andy Harris, Jon Mittaz, Chris Merchant, Bob Potash, Wen Meng, and John Sapper. "NOAA's Sea Surface Temperature Products From Operational Geostationary Satellites."¬†Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society¬†89, no. 12 (December 1,¬†2008): 1877-88.¬†doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2528.1.
    • Merchant, Christopher J., and Pierre Le Borgne. "Retrieval of Sea Surface Temperature from Space, Based on Modeling of Infrared Radiative Transfer: Capabilities and Limitations."¬†Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology¬†21, no. 11 (November 1,¬†2004): 1734-46.¬†doi:10.1175/JTECH1667.1.
    • Merchant, C. J., A. R. Harris, E. Maturi, and S. Maccallum. "Probabilistic Physically Based Cloud Screening of Satellite Infrared Imagery for Operational Sea Surface Temperature Retrieval."¬†Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society¬†131, no. 611 (October 1,¬†2005): 2735-55.¬†doi:10.1256/qj.05.15.
    • Merchant, C. J., A. R. Harris, E. Maturi, O. Embury, S. N. MacCallum, J. Mittaz, and C. P. Old. "Sea Surface Temperature Estimation from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-12 (GOES-12)."¬†Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology¬†26, no. 3 (March 1,¬†2009): 570-81.¬†doi:10.1175/2008JTECHO596.1.
    • Wick, Gary A., John J. Bates, and Donna J. Scott. "Satellite and Skin-Layer Effects on the Accuracy of Sea Surface Temperature Measurements from the GOES Satellites."¬†Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology¬†19, no. 11 (November 1, 2002): 1834-48.¬†doi:10.1175/1520-0426(2002)019<1834%3ASASLEO>2.0.CO%3B2¬†(2002).
    • Wu, Xiangqian, W. Paul Menzel, and Gary S. Wade. "Estimation of Sea Surface Temperatures Using¬†GOES-8/9Radiance Measurements."¬†Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society¬†80, no. 6 (June¬†1999): 1127-38.

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