NOAA Geo-Polar Blended Global Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (Level 4)

The NOAA geo-polar blended SST is a daily 0.05¬į (~5km) global high resolution satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) Level-4 analyses generated on an operational basis. This analysis combines¬†SST¬†data from US, Japanese and European geostationary infrared imagers, and low-earth orbiting infrared (U.S. and European)¬†SST¬†data, into a single high-resolution 5-km product.¬† The three flavors of blended SST products are night only; day/night, and diurnal warming.¬†

    Data Access
    Plot of global Sea surface temperature data

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) office of National Environmental Satellite Data and Services (NESDIS)¬†generates a daily 0.05¬į (~5km) global high resolution satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on an operational basis. This¬†analysis combines¬†SST¬†data from U.S, Japanese and European geostationary infrared imagers, and low-Earth orbiting infrared (U.S. and European)¬†SST¬†data, into a single high-resolution 5-km product - this grid spacing was chosen to allow the resolution to approach the Nyquist sampling criterion for the mid-latitude Rossby radius (~20 km), in order to preserve mesoscale oceanographic features such as eddies and frontal meanders. The input¬†SST¬†data themselves are also processed in-house via the Geo-SST¬†Bayesian and physical retrieval approach (GOES-E/W, Meteosat-10), and, for polar-orbiting and Himawari-8, the Advanced Clear Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO).

    Algorithms

    The analysis employs a rigorous multi-scale optimal interpolation (OI) methodology that approximates the Kalman filter, together with a data-adaptive correlation length scale, to ensure a good balance between detail preservation and noise reduction. The multi-scale OI employs a quad-tree approach avoids the concomitant computation times that result from pursuing a straight OI methodology, while running the analysis at three different correlation scales (coarse, medium, fine) preserves mathematical rigor. The algorithm is fully described in Khellah et al. (2005).

    Validation

    The product accuracy verified against globally distributed buoys is ~0.02 K, with a robust standard deviation of ~0.25 K. The new analysis has proven a significant success even when compared to other products that purport to have a similar resolution. This analysis forms the basis for other operational environmental products such as coral reef bleaching risk and ocean heat content for tropical cyclone prediction.

    Products

    Three blended SST analysis products are generated:   

    1. Day/night which combines both day and night day; 
    2. Night time only which uses only nighttime data;
    3. Diurnally Corrected Analysis which corrects for diurnal fluctuations on the Day/ night Analysis. 

    The near real-time products are generated operationally at NOAA/OSPO and re-served by CoastWatch for the convenience of a broader number of users. The night only product has been reprocessed (see below) and is available from Sept. 2002 to 2016.

    Reprocessing

    The analysis has been run for the period 1 Sept. 2002 through 31 Dec. 2016, incorporating reprocessed geostationary and polar-orbiting SSTs. This has been done primarily to furnish a consistent reference baseline for anomaly-based products such as those generated by Coral Reef Watch.

    Future enhancements

    Forthcoming enhancements include the incorporation of microwave SST products from low-earth orbiting platforms (e.g. GCOM-W1) in order to improve resolution of SST features in areas of persistent cloud and correct for diurnal effects via a turbulence model of upper ocean heating.

    Short Names
    GEO-POLAR
    Temporal Coverage

    Near real-time + 3 days

    Product Families
    Sea Surface Temperature
    Measurements
    Sea Surface Temperature - Geostationary
    Sea Surface Temperature - Polar-orbiting
    Processing Levels
    Level 3
    Latency Groups
    0 Hours <= 24 Hours (NRT)
    Latency Details

    Less than 24 hours

    Spatial Resolution Groups
    2km+
    Spatial Resolution Details

    5km

    Data Providers
    NOAA
    NESDIS
    OSPO
    Spatial Coverage

    Global

    Description

    180W - 180E
    90N - 90S

    GOES-East

    Description

    Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - East

    Platform Type
    Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite (GEO)
    Instruments
    Organizations
    NASA
    NOAA
    Orbital Longitude
    75.2¬į W
    Orbital Altitude
    35786 km

    GOES-West

    Description

    Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - West
     

    Platform Type
    Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite (GEO)
    Instruments
    Organizations
    NASA
    NOAA
    Orbital Longitude
    137.2¬įW
    Orbital Altitude
    35786 km

    Himawari

    Description

    Himawari

    Platform Type
    Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite (GEO)
    Instruments
    Organizations
    JMA
    Orbital Longitude
    140.7¬į E
    Orbital Altitude
    35786 km

    Meteosat

    Description

    Meteosat
     

    Platform Type
    Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite (GEO)
    Instruments
    Organizations
    EUMETSAT
    ESA
    Orbital Longitude
    0¬į
    Orbital Altitude
    35786 km

    MetOp

    Description

    Meteorological Operational satellite - A / B / C

    Platform Type
    Low Earth Orbit Satellite (LEO)
    Instruments
    Organizations
    ESA
    EUMETSAT
    Orbital Altitude
    827 km
    Equatorial Crossing Times
    07:50 desc

    SNPP

    Description

    Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership

    Platform Type
    Low Earth Orbit Satellite (LEO)
    Instruments
    Organizations
    NASA
    NOAA
    Orbital Altitude
    833 km
    Equatorial Crossing Times
    13:25 asc

    ABI

    Description

    Advanced Baseline Imager

    Platforms
    Instrument Types
    Imager
    Organizations
    NOAA

    AHI

    Description

    Advanced Himawari Imager

    Platforms
    Instrument Types
    Imager
    Organizations
    JMA

    AVHRR

    Description

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

    Platforms
    Instrument Types
    Imager
    Organizations
    NOAA

    SEVIRI

    Description

    Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager

    Platforms
    Instrument Types
    Imager
    Organizations
    EUMETSAT

    VIIRS

    Description

    Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite

    Platforms
    Instrument Types
    Imager
    Organizations
    NASA
    • Maturi, E., A. Harris, J. Mittaz, J. Sapper, G. Wick, X. Zhu, P. Dash, and P. Koner,¬†2017:¬†A New High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Blended Analysis.¬†Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,¬†98,¬†1015‚Äď1026,¬†https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00002.1¬†
    • Ignatov, Alexander, Xinjia Zhou, Boris Petrenko, Xingming Liang, Yury Kihai, Prasanjit Dash, John Stroup, John Sapper, and Paul DiGiacomo. "AVHRR GAC SST Reanalysis Version 1 (RAN1)."¬†Remote Sensing¬†8, no. 4 (April 9, 2016): 315.¬†doi:10.3390/rs8040315.
    • Liu, Gang, Scott F. Heron, C. Mark Eakin, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Maria Vega-Rodriguez, Liane S. Guild, Jacqueline L. De La Cour, et al. "Reef-Scale Thermal Stress Monitoring of Coral Ecosystems: New 5-Km Global Products from NOAA Coral Reef Watch."¬†Remote Sensing¬†6, no. 11 (November 20, 2014): 11579-606.¬†doi:10.3390/rs61111579.
    • Donlon, C.J., Martin, M., Stark, J., Roberts-Jones, J., Fiedler, E., and Wimmer, W., The Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) system,¬†Remote Sens. Environ.,¬†116, 140-158,¬†doi:10.1016/j.rse.2010.10.017, 2012.
    • Reynolds, R.W., and Chelton, D.B., Comparisons of daily sea surface temperature analyses for 2007-08,¬†J. Climate,¬†23, 3545-3562, 2010.
    • Khellah, F., P.W. Fieguth, M.J. Murray and M.R. Allen, Statistical Processing of Large Image Sequences,¬†IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.,¬†14, 80-93, 2005
    • Liu, Gang, Alan E. Strong, and William Skirving. "Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Temperatures during 2002 Barrier Reef Coral Bleaching."¬†Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union¬†84, no. 15 (April 15, 2003): 137-41.¬†doi:10.1029/2003EO150001.
    • Harris, A., and Maturi, E., Assimilation of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Retrievals.¬†Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,¬†84, 1575-1580, 2003.¬†doi:10.1175/BAMS-84-11-1575¬†Thi√©baux, J., Rogers, E., Wang, W., and Katz, B., A New High-Resolution Blended Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature Analysis.¬†Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,¬†84, 645-656, 2003.

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